It’s not “just” Design!

Source: carrerfoundary


Methods for this stage…

This is how I will conduct this stage…

Example for desk research
  • First I would start with desk research, going through all the existing data available on the net and preparing the summary of it.
  • Then I will move towards the user interviews, for which I will have to know my target user and create a screener to shortlist them, which will also serve as a survey through a Google form. The survey will mostly have closed ended questions, questions are which are answered with yes/no.
Knowing the target user
  • After shortlisting the users for the interview, I will prepare a question list for the interview process. These will have more open-ended questions like, rather than asking “do you save money?” I would ask, “How do you approach saving money?”
  • After the interview(using online platforms/in person) is done, I will take the notes of this event is completed. Also, the results of the survey are generated.
Making notes of the user interviews
  • Moving forward, the comparative analysis taking in consideration similar or same features/products will be gathered and noted down in the form of the matrix to keep it most legible.
Source: smashingmagazine
  • Now to analyse the data gathered from the research and make it more understandable empathy map(using Figma template) and user person(using Figma templates) will be made. For which I will first group the users.
Example of grouping user on the basis of research
Example of empathy map
Example of user persona


  1. Focus on the user(concentrating on the user’s perspective)
  2. Keep it broad(avoid any references to specific solutions or technical requirements)
  3. Make it manageable(don’t try to address too many user needs in one problem statement; prioritize and frame your problem accordingly)

Methods for this stage and how I would conduct it…

  • Who are we solving the problem for?
  • What is the ultimate goal / impact?
  • Where do we need to focus most?
  • When is the problem occurring?
  • Why is it important to solve the problem?
Example of four Ws


Example of “how might we” statements

Method for this stage and how would I conduct it…

Example of a simple story board


Methods for this stage and how I would conduct it…

  • Task flows: write down the steps step by step chronologically which they will go through from finding the feature(placement of the feature) to achieving their goal.(competitive research will help here to see how others do it)
  • Wire flow: sketch out a rough wireframe for the task flow and add any missing steps.
  • Screen flow: using tools like Figma, create the high fidelity version of the wire flows with annotations.
  • User flows show their purpose: name your user flow to show its purpose(the goal they are going to achieve). Also annotate the steps individually.
  • User Flows go in one direction: The user flows can only proceed in one direction; they can split, but only to demonstrate diversity, not to take a new step entirely. If there is a necessity, it is preferable to segregate and create different user flows.
  • User flows represent a complete task: User flows should be the unmistakable model of your app or website design among all the objects produced in your digital project. If your user flow is merely a fragment, it loses its ability to communicate your users’ journey. They lose their meaning if they drag on for too long.
Example of a user flow
Example of sitemap
  • Gestalt principles: Gestalt Principles are human perception fundamentals that describe how we group related elements, discern patterns, and simplify complicated images whenever we see an item, and can be used to design layouts and element placement.
  • Mental models: Mental models are preconceived notions that people hold before interacting with a product. Users expect to discover information in areas where they expect to find it.
  • Cognitive load: The quantity of information a user can process at any given time is referred to as cognitive load. When a system delivers too much information or too many alternatives at once, it’s common for consumers to become overwhelmed. The number of options or choices should never exceed seven as a general rule.
Example of IA (Source)
Example of stages of wire framing to interface design
  1. Fitts’s Law(the target(button) should be big and close enough)
  2. Hick’s Law(fewer options, less confusion and faster goal completion)
  3. Jakob’s Law(It means that users spend most of their time on other websites. Do not make users think!)
  4. Law of Prägnanz(users perceive complex forms in the simplest way because it is the interpretation that requires less mental effort.)
  5. Law of Proximity(Objects that are close tend to join, hey are understood as members of the same group.)
  6. Miller’s Law(Having more than 7 elements generates confusion and loss of focus of the user)
  7. Parkinson’s Law(the more time you give for completion of the task, the more it will be prolonged)
  8. Serial Position Effect(users will always remember better the first one and the last one.)
  9. Tesler’s Law(for any system there is a certain complexity that can not be reduced to the maximum)
  10. Von Restorff Effect(different things attract us and are striking to us. We want to draw attention on something different, in form and colors.)
  11. Zeigarnik Effect(the tendency to remember unfinished or interrupted tasks more easily than those that have been completed)
10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design(source)


Methods for this stage…

  • Moderated(under a supervision) vs. unmoderated(not under any direction)
  • Remote(can get you large data from different location) vs. in person(gives more nuanced information about the user)
  • Explorative(users are asked to express their emotions, opinions and impressions about the problem in its early stages) vs. comparative(users are asked to use the feature developed and compare it to some existing similar services and give their preference)
List of possible ways of usability testing

How I would conduct it…

  • The very first preparation for the testing in person through an online platform is to prepare a list of tasks for users to perform for the test.
  • Also creating questions for all the tasks for the users to get feedback through them while they go through using the product.
  • During the call/session, we will take small notes and then make an overall feedback of the user and write it down accordingly.
Example of the user testing overview
  • We then return to our design and make changes and iterate on those changes according to the business and user needs and go back to testing it.
  • The process of testing does not end when the product is launched, but rather an ongoing process for as long the product is alive to the user.
  • We can also use online services for testing, which can give use quicker results and broader results for the product, and it’s design.
  • Test As Early As Possible(You can test design mock-ups and low-fidelity prototypes. You’ll need to set the context for the test and explain to test participants what’s required of them.)
  • Outline Your Objectives(Think of the reason you want to test the product, identify exactly which features and areas you want feedback on.)
  • Carefully Prepare Questions And Tasks(the objective is not to test the functionality itself but to test the experience with that functionality.)
  • Actionable Tasks(These could be specific parts of the product or prototype that you want users to test)
  • Prioritize Tasks(list the important tasks in your product, and order them by priority.)
  • Clearly Describe Tasks(Users tend to become discouraged when tasks are unclear.)
  • Have a Goal For Each Task(As a moderator, you should be very clear about the goal of a task, However, you don’t need to share that goal with participants.)
  • Limit The Number Of Tasks(assigning only five tasks per participant)




UI/UX designer and a student

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Ayushi Dorle

Ayushi Dorle

UI/UX designer and a student

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